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Table: Human cases of H5N1 bird flu

Last updated: July 12, 2024

On this page you’ll find detailed information about each human case of H5N1 bird flu since 2021, when a new variant spread across most of the world. This page is updated regularly and as soon as possible when a human case is reported.

The current variant of concern is 2.3.4.4b, which has spread to a growing number of mammals since it was first discovered in late 2020. The first human case was reported in the UK in January 2022. An older variant (2.3.2.1c) is endemic in Cambodia and occasionally causes human cases.

Key figures

CasesDeathsCFR
New variant1915%
All variants91446951%

It’s currently not possible to predict the death rate for clade 2.3.4.4b. Most of the cases to date were picked up during random surveillance of poultry and cattle workers, which skews the data towards asymptomatic and mild cases. Only 4 cases have occurred in the community, causing severe illness in all cases and resulting in 1 death.

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Clade 2.3.4.4b (new variant)

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ReportedLocationPatientSymptomsOutcomePoultry/
cattle link
Source
2024-07USA (CO)N/AMildRecoveredYesLink
2024-07USA (CO)N/AMildRecoveredYesLink
2024-07USA (CO)N/AMildRecoveredYesLink
2024-07USA (CO)Adult/MMildRecoveredYesLink
2024-05USA (MI)AdultMildRecoveredYesLink
2024-05USA (MI)AdultMildRecoveredYesLink
2024-04USA (TX)AdultMildRecoveredYesLink
2023-07UKN/ANoneRecoveredYesLink
2023-07UKN/AMildRecoveredYesLink
2023-05UKN/ANoneRecoveredYesLink
2023-05UKN/ANoneRecoveredYesLink
2023-03Chile53/MSevereUnknownNoLink
2023-03China52/FSevereRecoveredYes
2023-01Ecuador9/FSevereRecoveredYesLink
2022-10Spain19/MNoneRecoveredYesLink
2022-10Spain27/MNoneRecoveredYesLink
2022-09China38/FSevereDiedYes
2022-04USA (CO)N/AMildRecoveredYesLink
2022-01UK80sNoneRecoveredYesLink

Other variants or unknown (2021-present)

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ReportedCladeLocationPatientSymptomsOutcomePoultry/
cattle
Source
2024-07UnknownCambodia5/FMildUnknownYesLink
2024-07UnknownCambodia3/MSevereUnknownYesLink
2024-052.3.2.1aAustralia2/FSevereRecoveredUnknownLink
2024-05UnknownChina33/FMildRecoveredYesLink
2024-03UnknownVietnam21/MSevereDiedYesLink
2024-022.3.2.1cCambodia17/FSevereUnknownYesLink
2024-022.3.2.1cCambodia16/MNoneRecoveredYesLink
2024-022.3.2.1cCambodia10/MSevereDiedYesLink
2024-012.3.2.1cCambodia69/MSevereRecoveredYesLink
2024-012.3.2.1cCambodia3/MSevereRecoveredYesLink
2023-112.3.2.1cCambodia4/FSevereRecoveredYesLink
2023-112.3.2.1cCambodia21/FSevereDiedYesLink
2023-102.3.2.1cCambodia2/FSevereDiedYesLink
2023-102.3.2.1cCambodia50/MSevereDiedYesLink
2023-022.3.2.1cCambodia49/MMildRecoveredYesLink
2023-022.3.2.1cCambodia11/FSevereDiedYesLink
2022-10UnknownVietnam4-5/FSevereRecoveredYesLink
2021-072.3.2.1aIndia11/MSevereDiedYesLink

Prior to 2021, a total of 880 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported across the world, causing 462 deaths. Most of those cases occurred between 2004 and 2011.

Definitions

  • Reported: The month in which a case was publicly reported. The actual infection or the onset of symptoms may have occurred weeks earlier. Some countries (especially China) take anywhere between days or weeks to publicly report a case.

Symptoms/Outcome

  • None: The patient did not report any symptoms (asymptomatic).
  • Mild: The patient experienced symptoms which did not require hospitalization or they were hospitalized but only for observation.
  • Severe: More serious symptoms requiring hospitalization, especially ICU treatment.
  • Recovered: The patient survived the active infection of H5N1 bird flu. Some patients have long-term or permanent health issues caused by the illness.
  • Died: The patient died while undergoing treatment for H5N1.
  • Unknown: No reliable information is available about the outcome of the case, which often happens when the patient is still hospitalized at the time of the announcement and no further updates are released.

Other data notes

  • Because we can only display one source in the table, the cited link may not include all available or up-to-date information.
  • Some cases may be assigned to a specific clade before laboratory studies are complete. For example, a person testing positive for H5 bird flu may be listed as H5N1 if they worked on a farm where animals were infected with H5N1.